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Ancient India- Harappan Indus civilization

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■Harappan/ Indus civilization 

(2500BC- 1750 BC):-

               The Harrapan Indus civilization 

▪︎The oldest name -Indus civilization.


▪︎According to the archeological traditions the most appropriate name- that Harrapan civilization.


▪︎ John Marshall was the first scholar to use the term Indus Civilization .


▪︎the Indus Civilization belongs to the proto-historic period.


▪︎ the Indus civilization was spread over Sindh, Balochistan, Punjab ,Haryana Rajasthan ,Gujarat ,Western UP, northern Maharashtra.


▪︎ the northern-most site of Indus Civilization- Ropar .


▪︎the southernmost site of Indus civilization –Bhagatrav


▪︎The eastern-most site of Indus Civilization –Alamgirpur.


▪︎ the westernmost site of Indus Civilization- Sutkagendor.


▪︎Mohenjo Daro– the largest site of Indus Civilization .


▪︎Rakhigarhi– the largest Indian site of Indus civilization.


■Common features of major cities-

 (Harrapan Indus civilization )

>Systematic town planning on the lines of grid system.

 >use of burnt brick in constructions.

 >underground drainage system

> Fortified Citadel


Surkotada – the only Indus site where the remains of a horse have actually been found .


main crops– wheat and Barley 


evidence of cultivation of rice in Lothal and rangpur only. 


animals- sheep, goat ,humped and humpless Bull ,buffalo, dog,cat, pig etc.


There was extensive inland and foreign trade with Mesopotamia or sumeria , bahrain flourished. 


A very interesting feature of the civilization was that iron was not known to the people.


The sumerian text refer to the trade relations with Meluha which was the name given to the Indus region.


Shatughai and Mundigaq were the Indus sites found in Afghanistan.


The harappans were the earliest people to produce cotton .(it was called Sindons by the Greek).


Lothal was an ancient port of Indus Civilization.


The Indus civilization was primarily urban .


There is no clear-cut evidence of the nature of polity, but it seems that the ruling authorities of Indus civilization was a class of merchants .


the Harappan people did not worship their Gods in temple.


No temple in fact has been unearthed . An idea of the religion is formed from the statues and figurine found.


The most commonly found figurine is that of mother goddess (MatriDevi aur Shakti ).there is evidence of prevalence of Yoni (female sex organ) worship.


The chief male deity was the Pashupati Mahadev (The Lord of animals) represented in seals as setting in yogic posture. he is surrounded by four animals (elephant ,tiger, Rhino and buffalo ) and two dear appear at his feet. there was the prevalence of phallic (Lingam) worship.


Steatite was mainly used in manufacture of seals.


Humpless bull is represented in most of the Indus seals.


Inhumation or complete burial was the most common method of disposal of the Dead .


The origin of the Swastika symbol can be traced to the Indus Civilization.


Indra” the is accused of causing the decline of Indus civilization.


The Rigveda speaks of a battle at a place named Hariyumpia which has been identified with Harappa.


The majority of Scholars believe that the makers of the Civilization were Dravidian.


Contemporary civilization of Indus Civilization- Mesopotamia, Egypt and China.

Read full article to know the Culture and historic times of Harrapan Indus civilization

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